As threats from Germany and a European war became more and more apparent, opinions changed. Chamberlain was awarded for his role as one of the « Men of Munich » in books such as The Guilty Men of 1940. A rare defence of the agreement during the war came in 1944 from Viscount Maugham, who had been Lord Chancellor. Maugham regarded the decision to establish a Czechoslovak state with large German and Hungarian minorities as a « dangerous experiment » in light of previous disputes and attributed the agreement largely to the need for France to free itself from its treaty obligations, given that it was not prepared for war.  After the war, Churchill`s memoirs of the time, The Gathering Storm (1948), claimed that Chamberlain`s appeasement of Hitler in Munich had been wrong, and recorded Churchill`s pre-war warnings about Hitler`s plan of aggression and the madness that Britain insisted on disarmament after Germany had achieved air parity with Britain. Although Churchill acknowledged that Chamberlain was acting for noble motives, he argued that Hitler should have resisted Czechoslovakia and that efforts should have been made to include the Soviet Union. The « guarantees » of Germany and Italy will only « guarantee » Czechoslovak neutrality if the demands of Hungary and Poland are met – that is, their guarantee will not be given, if at all, until the division of Czechoslovakia has progressed. It is to be feared that by that time any guarantee, whether German and Italian or French and British, would have lost all meaning to which it might have been made in the past. The Czechoslovaks were appalled by the colony of Munich.
They were not invited to the conference and felt betrayed by the British and French governments. Many Czechs and Slovaks refer to the Munich Agreement as the Munich diktat (Czech: Mnichovský diktát; Slovak: Mníchovský diktát). The term « betrayal of Munich » (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Slovak: Mníchovská zrada) is also used because Czechoslovakia`s military alliance with France proved useless. This was also reflected in the fact that the French government in particular had expressed the opinion that Czechoslovakia would be held responsible for a European war that would result if the Czechoslovak Republic defended itself by force against German incursions.  In 1938, the Soviet Union was allied with France and Czechoslovakia[…].