In Austria, the crime of defamation is provided for in Article 111 of the Criminal Code. Related offences include « defamation and assault » (Article 115) which occur « when a person is insulted, mocked, ill-treated or threatened to ill-behave another in public », and yet defined as a false charge that exposes someone to the risk of criminal prosecution.  This was first seen in the United Kingdom in a complaint filed by Mr. Godfrey against Demon, the ISP. An unknown person who claims to be Mr Godfrey made a defamatory article that appeared on Demon`s message server in the UK. The ad could be read by Demon`s customers. When Mr. Godfrey asked Demon to remove the ad (after claiming it was a fake), Demon did not. Mr Godfrey took Demon to court, claiming that the ISP was responsible for the defamation for hosting the ad. As a result of Demon`s failure to respond to Mr. Godfrey`s request, he won his case against Demon.
If you are able to prove that you have been the subject of a notice to a third party that contains false statements that may damage your reputation, you may be able to assert a right to defamation. In accordance with the Indian Constitution, the fundamental right to freedom of expression (Article 19) is subject to appropriate restrictions. Accordingly, for the purposes of criminal defamation, « reasonable restrictions » are defined in Section 499 of the Indian Penal Code of 1860.  This section defines defamation and provides valid exceptions where a statement is not considered defamation. It states that defamation « is made by words that are either spoken, read, or by visible signs or representations, in order to make or publish an imputation against a person who intends to cause or know damage or to have reason to believe that such an attribution will damage the reputation of that person ».  In India, a defamation case can be filed either under criminal law, civil law, cybercrime law, or one after the other.  In Portugal, defamation offences are « defamation » (Article 180 of the Criminal Code); up to six months in prison or a fine of up to 240 days), « injuries » (art. 181; up to 3 months in prison or a fine of up to 120 days) and « violation of the memory of a deceased person » (art. 185; up to 6 months in prison or a fine of up to 240 days). Penalties are increased in cases with publicity (art. 183; up to two years in prison or at least 120 days fine) and if the victim is an authority (art. 184; all other penalties will be increased by an additional half).
There is the additional penalty of « public knowledge of the court decision » (costs paid by the defamer) (art. 189 of the Criminal Code) and also the offense of « incitement to commit an offense » (article 297; up to 3 years in prison or fine).   For a statement to be defamatory, it must also be transmitted to a person other than the person around whom it is going. . . .